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From David Hanson’s Checklist of Photomechanical Processes and Printing 1825-1910….BAUDRAN, AUGUSTE ALEXANDRE, France, (worked primarily through the 1860’s) Baudran was an engraver and translated art into intaglio plates for the Gazette des Beaux Arts. Baudran, at a meeting of la Société des Sciences Naturelles et Médicales de Seine-et-Oise, February, 1864, outlined the various processes he employed starting in 1855. “…he conceived transferring drawing onto steel that he called glymmatographie, and which he immediately applied.The portrait of Cardinal Marlot, that he passed round, was produced as follows by this process: drawing, done on white paper, in black crayon or pencil, is applied to the plate, which has previously received a slight oily coat, and it leaves its impression bythe action of the press; a coat of a certain substance is then applied to the impression, and covered with a gelatin plate applied to the polished side; it is run through the press again, and the removed gelatin receives all parts of the drawing in black, while the plate only retains the blank parts. There remains only to plunge this plate into an ordinary bath of dilutenitric acid, so that it is etched. The plate sometimes has blotches, but they are removed witha burin. Mr. Baudran showed a proof of a cow, from the collection of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce…” “Mr. Baudran also placed before the eyes of members a series of portraits produced by another process – and having quite the look of engravings; this process he calls glymmalographique engraving consists of replacing drawings by the above process with hand engraving, made by metal tip or pen on plain paper or on gelatin. Mr. Baudran then moved on to his gravure etching processes. After paying tribute to Messieurs Niepce for the discovery of important properties of bitumen of Judea, he pointed out the inadequacy of this bitumen coating, and stated that he had made changes to the preparation, so that he could use concentrated nitric acid up to 40 [degrees Baumé]. and thus producedeep cuts allowing a large print run. He passed round some of the plates comprising copies of twenty-one paintings from the chapel of St. Philippe du Roule. Started by the gravureprocess, and completed by glymmatographie, giving a mixed process of lithographyengraving. Mr. Baudran also works heliographic engraving in intaglio; he gave some details about ordinary machines for engraving hatching and described the machine he had invented,
and whose use is so fast, the substance that covers the plate does not have time to dry. He gives it the name heliographic machine because of its characteristic of raising the burin onthe blank parts, using a special device. He passed round a series of untouched portraits, produced by this machine, as well as views of Versailles and the Trianon, a plate of which was examined under the magnifying glass, then another series of portraits from the collection of Nadar contemporaries for which all heliographic processes were used.” The last procedure was the one he and De La BLANCHÈRE used to make the Heliogravures (photogravures) from Nadar portraits during the mid-eighteen sixties. The plates have a pronounced grain and appear to be heavily retouched. Also the Nadar signature is clearly evident on the plates and so they must have used copy negatives or reversed positives for their plates. Intaglio