kupferautotypie von Meisenbach, Riffarth & Co. (copper autotype)
Meisenbach, Georg (1841-1922), Germany — “Autotypie" single line screen crossed after half the exposure in the copy camera, to create a crossline dot Halftone, in 1882. The Meisenbach system became the standard halftone system throughout Europe. His partner Joseph Ritter von Schmaedel, in 1884, succeeded in ruling through a black coating on a glass plate, using a specially made ruling machine, producing a clean screen for halftone. Once the perfected Levy screens became available after 1893, Meisenbach, as well as everyone else, used them.