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Fig. 60a Interior of the Redan Robertson, James  (British, 1813-1888)

This photograph is of the interior of the Redan after the fall of Sevastopol. The British made two unsuccessful attacks on the Redan fortification, a Russian stronghold, during the Siege of Sevastopol. The siege eventually ended on the 8th September 1855 when the French captured the nearby Malakoff redoubt, forcing the Russians to abandon the city.

By the time the Crimean War had begun in 1853, photography’s usefulness as a means of documenting, sharing, and digesting ‘factual’ knowledge of historic events was widely acknowledged. The medium had advanced enough, technically, to enable documenting the war, at least its less chaotic scenes, making it the first large war event that was captured photographically. Along with Roger Fenton, the war’s most famous photographer, James Robertson was commissioned to cover the conflict. Both photographers supplied their images to the information-hungry public, but despite the advances in photographic technology, reproducing the images in the press remained problematic. The only way to satisfy the demand was to translate the images into detailed lithographs and engravings.

It is unclear how Robertson’s photographs made it into the hands of the US Army when they were reproduced as lithographs in Major Richard Delafield’s Report on the Art of War in Europe in 1854, 1855, and 1856. Delafield was appointed by the War Department in 1855 to visit Europe for the purpose of ‘obtaining information with regard to the military service in general, and especially the practical working of changes which have been introduced of late years into the military systems of the principal nations of Europe’. The report from his year-long trip to the battlefield was published as a 300 page bound volume illustrated with an appendix of beautiful lithographs made from Robertson’s Crimean photographs. The prints serve as an excellent example of the limitations imposed on the utility of photography mid 19th century by the yet unsolved problem of a practical method of industrial reproduction.


Report on the Art of War in Europe in 1854, 1855, and 1856, by Major Richard Delafield, Corps of Engineers, from His Notes and Observations Made As a Member of a "military Commission to the Theater of War in Europe," Under the Orders of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War. Washington: publisher not identified, 1860

Keller, Ulrich The Image of War: The Crimean War (1853–1856) 2022

Bektas, Yakup
The Crimean War as a technological enterprise 2017

‘150th Anniversary of the Crimean War’ (Sadberk Hanim Muzesi, Istanbul, 2006), p.21